The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 1 : A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information; A to Androphagi (Classic Reprint)
Overview - Excerpt from The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 1: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information; A to Androphagi It is easier, however, to lay down principles than to carry them out consistently in face of the ob stinacy of the materials with which one is dealing in an encyclopedia which attempts to combine accu rate scholarship with general utility and convenience. Read more...
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More About The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 1 by Hugh Chisholm
Excerpt from The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 1: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information; A to Androphagi It is easier, however, to lay down principles than to carry them out consistently in face of the ob stinacy of the materials with which one is dealing in an encyclopedia which attempts to combine accu rate scholarship with general utility and convenience. In the case of biographical articles, for instance, it was decided 'that the proper headings were the names by which the in dividuals concerned are in fact commonly known. Thus George Sand is now dealt with under her pen-name (sand, george) and not under that of Madame Dudevant; George Eliot is no longer hid den away under her married name of 'mrs Cross; and Mark Twain is taken as the permanent name by. Which the world will know Mr Clemens. But it is not only in the case of pseudonyms that there is a difficulty in deciding upon the heading which is. Most appropriate. In variance with-p I the practice of the Dictionary of National Biography, all articles on titled persons are hereazzstolzzsfwmes arranged under the title headings and not the family names. In principle it is believed that this is much the more convenient system, for in most cases the public (especially outside the British Islands) does not know what the family name of an. English peer may be. Moreover, the system adopted by the Dictionary of National Biography sacrifices a very important feature in connexion with these bio graphical articles, namely, the history of the title itself, which has often passed through several families and can only be conveniently followed when all the holders are kept together. As a rule, this system of putting peers under the headings of their titles agrees with the principle of adopting the names by which people actually are called; but sometimes it is too glaringly otherwise Nobody would think of looking for Francis Bacon under the heading of Viscount St Albans, or for Horace Walpole under that of Earl of Orford. In such cases what is believed to be the natural expectation of readers has been consulted. The exceptional use, however, of the family name as a heading f01 persons of title has been reserved strictly for what 'may be regarded as settled conventions, and where reasonably possi ble the rule has been followed; thus Harley and St John are dealt with as Earl of Oxford and Viscount Bolingbroke respectively. On the other hand, when a celebrity is commonly known, not under his family name but under a title which eventually was changed for a different one of higher rank, the more convenient arrangement has seemed to be - notwithstanding general usage - to associate the article with the higher title, and so to bring it into connexion with the historical peerage. Thus the account of the statesman commonly called by his earlier title of Earl of Danby is deliberately placed under his later title of Duke of Leeds, and that of Lord Castlereagh under Marquess of Londonderry. If the result of such exceptions to the rule might seem to be that in cer tain cases a reader would not know where to turn, the answer is that a reference to the Index, where cross references are given, will decide. In the text of the.work, although a great deal has been done to refer a reader from one article to another, mere cross-references - such as Danby, Earlof; see leeds, duke 01 - are not included as distinct entries; it was found that the number of such headings would be very large, and they would only have duplicated the proper function of the Index, which now acts in this respect as the real guide to the contents and should be regarded as an integral part of the work. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com
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