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Other Minds : The Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of Consciousness
by Peter Godfrey-Smith


Overview -

A philosopher dons a wet suit and journeys into the depths of consciousness

Although mammals and birds are widely regarded to be the smartest creatures on earth, it has lately become clear that a very distant branch of the tree of life has also sprouted higher intelligence: the cephalopods, consisting of the squid, the cuttlefish, and above all the octopus.  Read more...


 
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    Other Minds (Paperback)
    Published: 2017-10-17
    Publisher: Farrar Straus and Giroux
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More About Other Minds by Peter Godfrey-Smith
 
 
 
Overview

A philosopher dons a wet suit and journeys into the depths of consciousness

Although mammals and birds are widely regarded to be the smartest creatures on earth, it has lately become clear that a very distant branch of the tree of life has also sprouted higher intelligence: the cephalopods, consisting of the squid, the cuttlefish, and above all the octopus. In captivity, octopuses have been known to keep tabs on individual human keepers, raid neighboring tanks for food, turn off lightbulbs by spouting jets of water, plug drains, and make daring escapes. How is that a creature with such gifts evolved through an evolutionary lineage so radically distant from our own? What does it mean that evolution built minds not once, but at least twice? The octopus is the closest we will come to meeting an intelligent alien. What can we learn from the encounter?

In Other Minds, Peter Godfrey-Smith, a distinguished philosopher of science and skilled scuba diver, tells a bold new story of how subjective experience crept into being how nature became aware of itself. As Godfrey-Smith stresses, it is a story that largely occurs in the ocean, where animals first appeared. Tracking the mind s fitful development, Godfrey-Smith shows how unruly clumps of seaborne cells began living together and became capable of sensing, acting, and signaling. As these primitive organisms became more entangled with others, they grew more complicated. The first nervous systems evolved, probably in ancient relatives of jellyfish; later on, the cephalopods, which began as inconspicuous mollusks, abandoned their shells and rose above the ocean floor, searching for prey, and acquiring the greater intelligence needed to do so. Taking an independent route, mammals and birds later began their own evolutionary journey.

But what kind of intelligence do cephalopods possess? Drawing on the latest scientific research and his own scuba-diving adventures, Godfrey-Smith probes the many mysteries that surround the lineage. How did the octopus, a solitary creature with little social life, become so smart? What is it like to have eight tentacles that are so packed with neurons that they virtually think for themselves ? What happens when some octopuses abandon their hermit-like ways and congregate together, as they do in a unique location off the coast of Australia? And how does the cephalopod mind differ from the mammal mind, which took its own path a path that eventually gave rise to an especially rich form of consciousness?

By tracing the question of inner life back to its roots and comparing human beings with our most remarkable animal relatives, Godfrey-Smith casts crucial new light on the octopus mind and on our own.

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Details
  • ISBN-13: 9780374227760
  • ISBN-10: 0374227764
  • Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • Publish Date: December 2016
  • Page Count: 272
  • Dimensions: 8.3 x 5.7 x 1.1 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 0.9 pounds


Related Categories

Books > Science > Philosophy & Social Aspects
Books > Philosophy > Mind & Body
Books > Science > Life Sciences - Evolution

 
Publishers Weekly Reviews

Publishers Weekly® Reviews

  • Reviewed in: Publishers Weekly, page .
  • Review Date: 2016-09-12
  • Reviewer: Staff

Deftly blending philosophy and evolutionary biology, Godfrey-Smith (Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection), an Australian philosopher of science, uses his passion for cephalopods to address how consciousness arose from the raw materials found in living beings. Comparing vertebrate consciousness and intelligence with that of cephalopods is not as odd as it might seem, because cephalopods are evolutions only experiment in big brains outside of the vertebrates. Godfrey-Smith demonstrates that octopuses are constructed from a dramatically different plan than vertebrates, with each of their arms having the ability to act and sense their environment semi-autonomously from their central brains. This striking difference raises intriguing questions about the nature of communication within organisms, as well as about the meaning of intelligence. Godfrey-Smith couples his philosophical and scientific approach with ample and fascinating anecdotes as well as striking photography from his numerous scuba dives off the Australian coast. He makes the case that cephalopods demonstrate a type of intelligence that is largely alien to our understanding of the concept but is no less worthy of wonder. He also ponders how and why such intelligence developed in such short-lived creatures (they generally live only a few years). Godfrey-Smith doesnt provide definitive answers to his questions, but the journey he leads is both thoroughly enjoyable and informative. (Dec.)

 
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