Only recently did mankind realize that it resides on a world of networks. The Internet and the World Wide Web are changing our life. Our physical existence is based on various biological networks. We have recently learned that the term "network" turns out to be a central notion in our time, and the consequent explosion of interest in networks is a social and cultural phenomenon. The principles of the complex organization and evolution of networks, natural and artificial are the topic of this book, which is written by physicists and is addressed to all involved researchers and students. The aim of the text is to understand networks and the basic principles of their structural organization and evolution. The ideas are presented in a clear and pedagogical way, with minimal mathematics, so even students without a deep knowledge of mathematics and statistical physics will be able to rely on this as a reference. Special attention is given to real networks, both natural and artificial. Collected empirical data and numerous real applications of existing theories are discussed in detail, as well as the topical problems of communication networks.